Paternal Ancient Ancestry Haplogroup R1b first arrived first arrived in Europe from West Asia during the Upper Paleolithic period (35,000-40,000 years ago) at the beginning of the Aurignacian culture. This culture is one of the first within Europe to leave cave art, and their stone tools were more refined than previous periods. The Périgordian culture is also thought by some to have existed at this time.
As the last ice age began, it became necessary to move down to below the tree line to hunt game. At its peak, the ice shelf within Europe extended down as far as southern Ireland, the middle of England and across northern Germany. Scandinavia was entirely covered. The sea ice pack extended as far as northern Spain, and tundra covered much of continental Europe. The tree line at the height of the ice age extended as far south as southern France, northern Italy, the northern Balkans and across the Black Sea.
People with Haplogroup R1 Y-chromosomes retreated to below these regions where they established themselves. As the ice age ended and the fauna and flora were able to move northward again, people in R1b also migrated north. Haplogroup R1 appears in about 50% of the total European population whereas R1b remains by far the most common haplogroup in western Europe (Spain, Portugal, France, UK and Ireland). R1b3, one of the most successful clades, has its origins about 11,800 years ago. Within the British Isles, a genetic pattern called the Atlantic Modal Haplotype (AMH) features greatly among the Irish and Welsh. Some researchers consider this haplotype to be representative of the early Celtic migrations. Haplogroup R1b is prevalent within South America because of the influx of Iberian Y chromosomes to the continent over the last 500 years.
Some of the historical questions that the
Cotton DNA research may be able to help answer include:
1. Were the Lagin of Ireland related to the
Dumnonii of W Scotland and SW England?
2. Did the Lagin originate from Armorica?
3. Were the Brigantes of N. England related
to the Lagin & Dumnonii?
4. Were the Brigantes of N. England related
to the Brigantes in E. Ireland on Ptolemy’s map?
In Ireland the Dumnonii were generally known as the Laigin,
and originally became overlords in the southeastern and central regions, and in
Connacht. The Laigin, or Dumnonii, were the third ethno-tribal group to come to
Ireland, coming from Gaul shortly before the Gaels
themselves, sometime during the first century
Branches of the Dumnonii settled first in the
Devon-Cornwall area before others moved on to Ireland.In southern Britain their
kingdom gave its name to Devon (Dumnonia). In the time of King Arthur (ca. A.D.
500), as the tribe most closely associated with that great Pendragon, these
Devon Domnonii established a dual kingdom which included the north coast of
Brittany (Domnonie), from whose royal house eventually sprang the House of
Stewart (which house inherited the crown of the Scots in 1371 and that of
England in 1603). The Stewarts are covered under the chapter on the Normans,
having come to Scotland in the wake of Norman Conquest of England, in which
they served as allies of the dukes of Normandy.